stagnant economy in which there are few new jobs. In other words, any assessment of the political effects of population change must take into account the capacity of the social, economic, and political system to respond to the challenge.
Since the adaptive capabilities of systems differ markedly, there may very well be few if any uniform political effects of population growth; certainly the attempts so far to relate population growth to war, violence, political instability, revolution, etc. have not been successful. To suggest, therefore, as some do, that family planning programs in the developing countries are away of reducing the probabilities of violence, revolution, or war, and to make such claims as a rationale for family planning programs cannot be justified on the basis of existing knowledge.
Nonetheless, there are a few political effects which, if they are not general in character, are at least relevant to certain classes of political systems.
1. All things being equal, a growth in population will result in an increased demand for housing, education, health facilities, and for employment. In a low income country, the increased demand is not only likely to strain the financial resources of the government, but to place a particularly heavy burden on administrative services as well.
2. Since most governments in the less developed countries can only provide educational and health facilities for a portion of the population, it is generally the lowest socioeconomic groups, or the politically powerless, who are left behind in the allocation of government resources. Since income and occupation often coincide with differences in religion, caste, tribe, or language, a half-developed system of primary and secondary school education may sharpen both class and ethnic differences. Thus, rapid population growth, by slowing progress toward universal education, may result in an intensification of both class and ethnic conflict. Therefore, social scientists could pay more attention to the question of who is being left behind in the development process and, in particular, who is not getting an equal share of educational and health facilities.
3. There are very severe problems of governmental management for the half-dozen or so countries of the developing world which are large in both territory and population. The relationship between central authority and subordinate governmental units, and often the political viability of the subordinate governmental units, can be substantially affected by rapid population growth. Since subordinate governmental units are often given primary responsibility for education and health programs, rapidly increasing demands in these areas may weaken subordinate governmental units and cause a strain in their relations with central authority. With respect to these countries, political scientists need to give attention to the size of subordinate governmental units and to the best allocation of functions and resources amongelectivity and the Growth of Large Cities in Developing Societies," in this volume.g the adaptation of migrants to the city. For a comprehensive review and critique of much of the literature on the political behavior of urban migrants, see (62).